Thursday, May 21, 2020

What is a credit union - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2830 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? A credit union is a co-operative financial institution, which is owned and controlled by its members. Credit unions are not-for-profit, and exist to provide a safe, convenient place for members to save money and obtain loans and other financial services at competitive rates. Members of a credit union share a common bond, such as their occupation, where they live or attend church. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "What is a credit union?" essay for you Create order (Credit Union League 2004). The Jamaica Credit Union League, a co-operative central body embracing all the credit unions in the island was founded in 1942. The League was a voluntary association, which was democratically controlled and financed by its member credit unions. With the establishing of this League headed by Father John Peter Sullivan, the Movement now had an organization whose objectives included: representing its members by contacting the Government about issues such as legislation, conducting central business services, receiving deposits from Credit Unions and other Co-operative Societies, making loans to its member credit unions and also to undertake investments for the member credit unions by organizing new credit unions. Member societies paid fees of ten cents (10c) per annum per individual member to access the Leagues services. In March, 1949 the League established the deposit and loan section which required that credit unions to deposit sums equal to their statu tory reserves. These credit unions could obtain loans at the rate of 5% per annum to meet their own lending demands.  [i]  Later individual members of credit unions were granted loans on the recommendations of their Credit Unions at the rate of 6%per annum. (Credit Union League 2004). The aim of the Credit Union is to provide a wide range of services to meet the needs of its members and to provide a safe place for savings and completive interest rates on loans. WHAT IS A DEVELOPMENT BANK? The Development bank of Jamaica was established on April 1, 2000 (Development bank of Jamaica, 2007) there was a merger between two owned Government of Jamaica institutions, which were the Agricultural Credit Bank and the National Development Bank Of Jamaica Limited. The Agricultural Credit Bank and the National Development Bank were founded in 1981.The Development Bank of Jamaica was governed by the Ministry of Finance and Planning and the board members, which was appointed by the Ministry. According to Development bank of Jamaica (2007) it is stated that the bank provides the following: it facilitates development financing to the productive sectors primarily in the areas of agriculture, agro-processing manufacturing, information processing tourism, service and mining and quarrying. It helps with credit principally through a wide range of Approved Financial Institution (AFIs), including Commercial and Merchant Banks, Peoples Cooperative Bank; Credit Unions are private sectors deve lopment financial institution. They invested in the agricultural, manufacturing, tourism, agro-processing, quarrying and mining and services sectors. They also play a critical role in non-credit activities principally with respect to the upgrading of the Peoples Cooperative Banks as well as providing assistance to a number of sub-sectors which have faced difficulties. With these roles the development banks seeks to endorse economics development within the developing countries. iiCaribbean Development Bank intends to be the leading catalyst for development resources into the Region, working towards the systematic reduction of poverty through social and economic development. They assist with borrowing member countries to the use of their resources, developing their economies and increase production and trade. They encourage private and public investment, development of the financial upturn in the region and helps business activities and expansion. Developments Banks aimed to mobili ze their resources from both within and outside the region for development. These banks provide technical assistance to its regional borrowing members, support regional and local financial institutions and a market for credit savings. They also support and stimulate the development of capital markets within their region. Their vision is to facilitate economic growth, development, job creation resulting in an improved for all Jamaicans. To be an innovative financier of economic activity, they offer a supportive of national development, to provide the best place for work and to be a world class development bank. CREDIT UNIONs IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT Credit Unions vary from Banks and other financial institutions, their members have ownership of the credit union and they elect their board of directors in a democratic one-person-one vote system irrespective of the amount of money that has been invested in the credit union. Credit Unions contribute to economic development through the wider community, mobilizing significant volumes of savings. (Journal of Public Sector Policy Analysis 2009) Research has confirmed that credit unions contribute positively to national development in Barbados and other Caribbean territories. (Roland, 2009). Credit Unions continue to be a prominent source of growth within the financial sector and therefore their macroeconomic significance has increased considerably. They have transformed the social and economic status of several members, enabling them to advance from the underprivileged class to the home owner class, by providing affordable terms and conditions for access to loans to finance a wide rang e of programmes. This paper seeks to determine the contribution of credit unions to national development. Research by the Centre for Economic Development and Area Regeneration (2000) concluded that credit unions start up or operate using the ethical approach, which focuses on having a strong community base with much volunteer involvement developing at its own pace, have been relatively ineffective. In response to some of the issues raised, there has been a gradual shift in the British credit union movement to new model development'(Jones, 2001). Jones believes that new model development is based on seven doctrines which will bring economic success, serving the financial needs of the population at large, maximizing savings, portfolio diversification, operating efficiency, financial discipline, self-governance and assimilation. Evidence of accepting the new model can be seen in the promotion of new business oriented approach to credit union development. Dr. Yaw Forkuoh, Senior Lect urer at the Department of Pharmacy of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), (Ghanaian Jounnal, 2009) stated that credit unions are vital institutions which help to decrease poverty among people in society. He had appealed to the government to channel Poverty Alleviation Funds through credit unions for the distribution to people as loans, to better improve their income and way of life. He said that loan delinquency has been a serious issue facing the credit unions and asked the management of the unions to take the necessary steps to ensure that are been loans granted to their members will be paid on time for others also to benefit from it. Dr. Yaw Forkuoh, believes that the credit union is accessible by its member where loans are concerned which will better develop the economy. Credit Unions contribute and support other local organizations in concreting ways to carry out community projects. These projects have a community development focus on building cap acity, resilience, and strength in the community and not necessarily any direct economic component. These are resources committed for all different types of activities include financial resources, human resources, equipment, space, and more. Involvement in community development is important; it does not yield a quantifiable return for the credit union or the local economy. With such involvement will strengthen the name and reputation of the credit union as a community leader and contributor. Schulze-Delitzsch and Raiffeisen stated that the Credit unions are not conventional financial institutions. The kind of development for which they are uniquely well-suited is not conventional economic development, but community economic development, which is based in and draws on the communitys needs and resources, the same way a credit union does, but by contributing to communities it can be led to economic development. Credit unions have enhanced local economies by increasing the availabili ty of small loans and reduce to meet its members borrowing costs. But where there is a need, credit unions still contain their original potential to be agents for business development. Claes Bell, 2008 said that if everyone was a credit union member, would we be toasting the new economic recovery instead of self-pitying in the same sickness weve been mired in since 2009. A recent survey shows consumers who bank at credit unions have a more positive view of their personal finances than those who dont. According to credit union data released from the Discover U.S. Spending Monitor in September, 38 percent of credit union members rate their personal finances as good or excellent, compared to 30 percent amongst noncredit union members surveyed. Just 17 percent of credit union members rate their finances as poor, while 29 percent of noncredit union members feel the same way. Both groups differ when their personal financial situations are getting better or worse, whats more, credit union members report an objectively better financial situation than their bank-only counterparts. Allowing the poor in various rural areas to increase access to financial services, the poor may face a number of constraints when they seek access to financial services. However access to credit is very crucial because the credit union can smooth cash income fluctuations. They help to achieve occasional unexpected earning opportunities. They open more options and opportunities for increasing the securities and liquidity of a poor household. Access to deposit facilities will allow poor people to store current income for future use, which has welfare to improving effects because it means that people are less likely to suffer when unavoidable external shocks hit them. (Kirton 1991) stated that statistics has proven that majority of credit unions membership falls into lower income category. Credit unions are known to encourage saving habit, they provide low transaction cost too which is required to mobilize a great number of small voluntary savings accounts, offering a wide variety of savings services. They also have sound institutional controls and structures that are needed to accompany saving mobilization. Credit unions contribute significantly to small and micro-enterprise, a great proportion of credit union loans are allocated to a category called the business sector, comprise mostly of micro and small business, involved in a wide range of activities. These business aids in the development of the country through the provision of employment. This goes to show that credit union is vital in developing counties because it helps to boost the economy. DEVELOPMENT BANKS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Development bank,  national or regional financial institution are designed to provide medium- and long-term capital for productive investment, often accompanied by technical assistance, in poor and developing counties. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica is meticulously stated that the number of development banks has increased significantly since the 1950s; they have been invigorated by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliates. The large regional development banks along with the Inter-American Development Bank, established in 1959; the Asian Development Bank, which began operations in 1966; and the African Development Bank, established in 1964. They may make loans for specific national or regional projects to private and public bodies or may operate in conjunction with other financial institutions. One of the major activities of development banks has been the recognition and promotion of private investment chances. Although the effort s of the majority of development banks are focused towards the industrial sector, some are also concerned with agriculture. Development banks may be a public or private entity which may own and operated, although governments often make significant contributions to the capital of private banks. The form and cost of financing offered by development banks depend on their cost of earning capital and their need to show a profit and pay dividends. (Development bank 2011). In Development practices have triggered some controversy. Because development banks tend to be government-run and are not accountable to the taxpayers who fund them, there are a small number of checks and balances preventing the banks from making some horrible investments. Some international development banks have been accused for imposing policies that ultimately undermine the economies of recipient countries. Yet another concern centres on moral hazard that is, the possibility that fiscally irresponsible policies by recipient countries will be effectively rewarded and thereby encouraged by bailout loans. While theoretically a serious concern, the existence of such moral hazard has not been substantiated. Growth and Development Strategies for the Caribbean, was coordinated by the Banks Economics department and includes papers commissioned from Caribbean experts. These papers, which  appraise the main strategies  for economic growth pursued by regional countries in recent times, are sector-wide in coverage with attention to such areas as agriculture, manufacturing, tourism and mining, among others. The Banks are still continuing to work towards being more responsive to its clients by improving efficiency and strengthening its institutional ability. Development Finance Corporation (DFC) is the label generically applied to institutions established for the specific purpose of providing finance for economic development. DFCs have also been described as development banks, specialized credit agencies, and credit boards (Bourne 1991). Development finance is needed to provide additional financial capital to remove or at least relax the savings constraint on physical capital accumulation. Development banks are there to assist with any matter that arises. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have combined with the Government of Grenada to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the reconstruction process following the devastation caused by Hurricane Ivan in Grenada in September 2004. The Caribbean Development bank intervenes when there is any natural disaster that may affect the economy of any country within the Caribbean region. They participants assisted in drafting a Policy and Guiding Principles for mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into the reconstruction process. (Caribank 2005) In partnership with the public and private sectors, CDB will seek to balance the undertakings and initiatives of all th e performers in the overall private sector development effort for CDBs BMCs, particularly in areas where there is demonstrable market failure. According to CDB private sector development strategy 2004, stated that CDB support business and product development by providing financing and TA for development of new businesses and products, expansion of existing enterprises and building institutional and enterprise size. This includes the provisions of finance for both public and private sector investment to maintain and improve economic and social infrastructure. The CDBs strategic objective for private sector development in the borrowing member countries, is to improve the global competitiveness of the Regions productive sector on a sustainable basis and reposition Caribbean economies into the mainstream of the world economy. These are the development banks are doing and should be doing to develop developing countries. By now there is an ever-expanding body of evidence that suggests countries with better developed financial systems experience faster economic growth (Levine, 1997 and 2005). More recent evidence also suggests financial development not only stimulates growth, but also develops the distribution of income. Better developed banks and markets are associated with faster growth is also confirmed by panel and time-series estimation techniques. This research also shows that financial sector development facilitates economic growth through more efficient resource distribution and productivity growth rather than through the scale of investment or savings mobilization. (worldbank 2005) China is often mentioned as a counterexample to the findings in finance and growth literature since despite weaknesses in its formal banking system, China is one of the fastest growing economies in the world (Allen, Qian, and Qian 2005), and development banks are playing an integral role in development countries by helping with basic infrastructure and assisting with the develo pment of enterprises. CONCLUSION A credit union is a co-operative financial institution, which is owned and controlled by its members. With the establishing of the credit unions league headed by Father John Peter Sullivan, the Movement now had an organization whose objectives included: representing its members by contacting the Government about issues such as legislation, conducting central business services, receiving deposits from Credit Unions and other Co-operative Societies, making loans to its member credit unions and also to undertake investments for the member credit unions by organizing new credit unions. Credit unions are known to encourage saving habit, they provide low transaction cost too which is required to mobilize a great number of small voluntary savings accounts, offering a wide variety of savings services. They also have sound institutional controls and structures that are needed to accompany saving mobilization. The Development Bank of Jamaica was governed by the Ministry of Finance and Pla nning and the board members, which was appointed by the Ministry. They invested in the agricultural, manufacturing, tourism, agro-processing, quarrying and mining and services sectors. They also play a critical role in non-credit activities principally with respect to the upgrading of the Peoples Cooperative Banks as well as providing assistance to a number of sub-sectors which have faced difficulties. With these roles the development banks seeks to endorse economics development within the developing countries. Development finance is needed to provide additional financial capital to remove or at least relax the savings constraint on physical capital accumulation. Development banks are there to assist with any matter that arises. Better developed banks and markets are associated with faster growth is also confirmed by panel and time-series estimation techniques. This research also shows that financial sector development facilitates economic growth through more efficient resource dist ribution and productivity growth rather than through the scale of investment or savings mobilization.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Relational Database Management System (Dbms) - 1695 Words

Running head: TERM PROJECT Term Project and Proposal Name: University: Course: Date of submission: Abstract Business corporations often require summarized pieces of data in the form of pivot tables for efficient and strategic decision-making. However, the use of pivot tables poses certain data storage problems especially in the light of the need to have the formulas stored with data. This paper presents one data storage situation where using pivot tables for summarizing data was unsuitable because the storage was done using a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet, stored in XLS format. The project purposes to implement the data storage using a database management system, in this case, Microsoft Access to address the problem†¦show more content†¦This paper implements the solution using Microsoft Access 2007. In this case, the table would have each Employee with the values such as Al and Clara, the Date with values like 1/05/2011, and the Status with values o, wh, and wa. This would result in several records per day but each record would represent only one Employee. With this form of normalization, it is possible and plain to create the desired pivot table. In fact, pivot tables generated from this normalized data would be able to answer questions like â€Å"which employee worked away on a certain day of the month?† Unfortunately, though, this data is stored in a way that the user would not be able to see or even use it at times. There are many benefits of using a database over spreadsheets for storing this kind of data. The following is a list of some of these benefits to the sales business and users: * Database management systems provide for restricted access to * Databases help reduce or avoid data storage redundancy * Persistent storage of data structures and useful program objects like queries and reports * Databases help enforce referential and standards * Databases help in representing sophisticated relationship among vast amounts of data * DBMS provide for database backup and recovery Data elements to be involved: entities and attributes This database system will center on capturing employee details with respect to whetherShow MoreRelatedComputer Is The Security And Reliability801 Words   |  4 Pageslayer of software so-called operating system runs the whole hardware in accordance with the user commands. The OS is the piece of software which allocates the hardware resources to the processes depending on their priority and usage. It thus protects the hardware components from being used by unwanted processes and safeguarding them in real-time. One of the crucial aspect that highlights when dragging a discussion about hardware resources is the Database. A database can be simply defined as the informationRead MoreAcs Assignment 2, University of Winnipeg Essay1448 Words   |  6 Pagesprevious question to a relational database design. Fill each table in your design with data from the previous question such that no information is lost. Show how your design satisfies the criteria for being a relational database, and why it is better to store data on disk in this way rather than all in one table. c) 7 What is database management system? 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A perspective characterizes what information the client sees and how that client sees the information. The DBMS gives a level of reflection between the reasonable diagram which characterizes the legitimate structure of the database and the physical construction that portrays the records, files and other physical instruments utilized by the database. At the point when a DBMS is utilized, frameworks can be adjusted all the moreRead More Relational and Object-oriented Database Management Systems Essay2156 Words   |  9 PagesRelational and Object-oriented Database Management Systems A database is a â€Å"shared collection of logically related data designed to meet the information needs of multiple users in an organization† (Hoffer 709). Databases contain data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Databases allows multiple users in an organization to easily access, manage, store, and update data when needed. 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Specially, data is to be explained in order to gain information. Database A database is a well-ordered collection of data that are linked in a meaningful way, which can be contacted in diï ¬â‚¬erent logical orders. A collection of related dataRead MoreMicrosoft Vs. Multi File Database1594 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent database technologies. Each technology offers its own pros and cons and below is a look at of the most common technologies. Single- vs. multi-file databases A notable different between technologies can be whether they are single-file or a multi-file database. Single-file database Single-file database is the simplest database structure, as it consists of unified information, which can often be used and accessed in a pre-determined manner. Complexity in a single-file database is not commonplaceRead MoreIntroduction to Databases2358 Words   |  10 PagesPart 1 Background Chapter 1 Introduction to Databases 1.1 A database management system provides a number of facilities that will vary from system to system. Describe the type of facilities you might expect, especially those that aid the initial implementation of a database and its subsequent administration. Initially, the type of facilities expected should be described. These include: data storage and retrieval, concurrency control mechanism, authorization services, integrity mechanismsRead MoreProfessional Skills For Information Systems1591 Words   |  7 PagesInformation Systems CIS5100 S1 2017 Submitted By Deepak Chander Jaikumar U1097711 10 May 2017 University of Southern Queensland The database is a collection of related data that is organized in some way so it can be accessed easily and can be managed updated. Relational database management system (RDBMS) is DBMS system that is based on relational model. In this model, data is represented in tuples. The query is the type of request for the information from the database. Database report

American vs. French Revolution Free Essays

Compare and Contrast Essay American vs. French Revolution Throughout the years, our world has faced drastic and far-reaching changes in the way people think and behave. Countries have managed to constantly change their way of viewing things and started by placing action of what they thought. We will write a custom essay sample on American vs. French Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now Two great examples about these conversions are the American and the French Revolution. This times in history, where vital for the formation of nations all over the world and was able to leave a legacy until today. Whereas some people consider these changes as minimal, the American and French Revolution changed the way governments were formed around the world. The French Revolution started in France 1789 which turn out to be a period of radical social and political up heal in France. France was left really poor after helping with the American Revolution a few years before. One of the main conflicts found between the government and the people was that they were charging the poor for taxes while the nobles weren’t paying at all. When the citizens realized it, the governed decided to overthrow the government which at this time was ruled by Louis XVI. More and more people joined the opposition to the existing governing constitution. The Girondin was one of the most important devices in the French revolution due to the fact that many executions of the national party took place there. It was considered a scary time in the country because of the many executions that were held to back up any revolutionary activities. A few years later, Napoleon Bonaparte established an end to the revolution by declaring himself the ‘First consul’ of France, however didn’t quite develop a stable government for later. In the other hand, the American Revolution years earlier back in 1775. The main reason for why this war took place was because the 13 American colonies wanted to break apart from their â€Å"mother land†, Great Britain. Unlike the French, the American battle was fought as a war with guns and canons in where troops seize to obtain power for their country. After 3 years of war, the French and the United States created the Franco-American Alliance in 1778. This was one more step towards the Americans gaining power over their land. This finally concluded in 1783 when they signed the Treaty of Paris which ended the war. However, Independence Day in the United States is celebrated the 4th of July because that same date back in 1776 was when the famous piece written by Thomas Jefferson was signed by the one of the most important people in American history. The declaration stated their freedom as a legit nation and grants them the title of the United States of Americas. As you can see, both revolutions have their differences among with their similarities. One of the obvious ones is that the American Revolution was the one who created this revolutionary movement in world history and inspired other nations who were struggling for their rights (in this case France). France returned them the favor of inspiration by helping them fight against the British and contributing in what was needed. Another similarity was that they both had a written piece (Declaration of Independence and The rights of man) which introduced how the people wanted to be treated. In this fight for what the people believed was right, I’m sure you noticed various differences among the two. First of all, the American Revolution took place an ocean away from the country of origin and the French Revolution was held in France itself. Another difference mentioned before is that the American Revolution was developed through war and battle. France in the other hand was more of executions and conflicts between the people and the government. One of the most important contrarieties was that the United States incarnated America as a state of democracy and created a long lasting government that is still held today. The French tried to do something similar however they weren’t able to. As you can see, the Revolutions, with their differences and similarities, managed to reform their countries in their own way. Weather it was through war or through executions, the people managed to say how they wanted to be ruled and accomplished it. In my opinion I think that the revolutions were and will continue to be one of the most important events in world history and that we will forever have an effect on how our world can behave. How to cite American vs. French Revolution, Essay examples

American vs. French Revolution Free Essays

Compare and Contrast Essay American vs. French Revolution Throughout the years, our world has faced drastic and far-reaching changes in the way people think and behave. Countries have managed to constantly change their way of viewing things and started by placing action of what they thought. We will write a custom essay sample on American vs. French Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now Two great examples about these conversions are the American and the French Revolution. This times in history, where vital for the formation of nations all over the world and was able to leave a legacy until today. Whereas some people consider these changes as minimal, the American and French Revolution changed the way governments were formed around the world. The French Revolution started in France 1789 which turn out to be a period of radical social and political up heal in France. France was left really poor after helping with the American Revolution a few years before. One of the main conflicts found between the government and the people was that they were charging the poor for taxes while the nobles weren’t paying at all. When the citizens realized it, the governed decided to overthrow the government which at this time was ruled by Louis XVI. More and more people joined the opposition to the existing governing constitution. The Girondin was one of the most important devices in the French revolution due to the fact that many executions of the national party took place there. It was considered a scary time in the country because of the many executions that were held to back up any revolutionary activities. A few years later, Napoleon Bonaparte established an end to the revolution by declaring himself the ‘First consul’ of France, however didn’t quite develop a stable government for later. In the other hand, the American Revolution years earlier back in 1775. The main reason for why this war took place was because the 13 American colonies wanted to break apart from their â€Å"mother land†, Great Britain. Unlike the French, the American battle was fought as a war with guns and canons in where troops seize to obtain power for their country. After 3 years of war, the French and the United States created the Franco-American Alliance in 1778. This was one more step towards the Americans gaining power over their land. This finally concluded in 1783 when they signed the Treaty of Paris which ended the war. However, Independence Day in the United States is celebrated the 4th of July because that same date back in 1776 was when the famous piece written by Thomas Jefferson was signed by the one of the most important people in American history. The declaration stated their freedom as a legit nation and grants them the title of the United States of Americas. As you can see, both revolutions have their differences among with their similarities. One of the obvious ones is that the American Revolution was the one who created this revolutionary movement in world history and inspired other nations who were struggling for their rights (in this case France). France returned them the favor of inspiration by helping them fight against the British and contributing in what was needed. Another similarity was that they both had a written piece (Declaration of Independence and The rights of man) which introduced how the people wanted to be treated. In this fight for what the people believed was right, I’m sure you noticed various differences among the two. First of all, the American Revolution took place an ocean away from the country of origin and the French Revolution was held in France itself. Another difference mentioned before is that the American Revolution was developed through war and battle. France in the other hand was more of executions and conflicts between the people and the government. One of the most important contrarieties was that the United States incarnated America as a state of democracy and created a long lasting government that is still held today. The French tried to do something similar however they weren’t able to. As you can see, the Revolutions, with their differences and similarities, managed to reform their countries in their own way. Weather it was through war or through executions, the people managed to say how they wanted to be ruled and accomplished it. In my opinion I think that the revolutions were and will continue to be one of the most important events in world history and that we will forever have an effect on how our world can behave. How to cite American vs. French Revolution, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Shimla dairy products free essay sample

Shimla dairy products was a 30 year old family business turned into limited company, which manufactures a wide variety of cheese and other products (including ghee, butter and processed cheese). It manufactures and sells about 29 varieties of cheese. The company currently has two plants with a total capacity of 10000 liters of milk processing. Shimla dairy had been experiencing a growth of 15-20% in sales per annum as opposed to 7-8% growth for the other cheese manufacturing companies in the market. Licensed by the government as a food manufacturer, Shimla is working towards being ISO 9002 accredited and certified with HACCP. Shimla sold its cheese in major Indian cities of New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kochi, Bangalore and Hyderabad. It had recently extended its operations to the cities of Ahmedabad, Kolkata and Goa. The major customer for Shimla is the hotel industry (Five-star and the mid-low end) which contributes for about 46% of its revenue. Others include restaurants (20%), Retailers (17%) and Pizza chains (17%). We will write a custom essay sample on Shimla dairy products or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It also generates sales through distributors , with one or two distributors in each city. These distributors had exclusive rights for the city and supplied to hotels, restaurants and retail outlets. Shimla dairy has brought about few operational changes, like introducing a night shift to ensure higher quality of milk. Also, the testing for bacteria, yeast and moulds has been improved. Compared to its competitors Shimla dairy has a very low plant capacity and this has lead to the loss of few contracts by the company. Inspite of all these, Shimla had been facing a few problems and is looking out on ways to improve its sales. Few questions, which they are considering are should it explore a particular niche (high or low end cheese)? , which area to concentrate on? How to market its products better? Should the production facilities be expanded? How to create more brand awareness? To analyze the company’s position better , the strengths and weaknesses of Shimla dairy are analyzed . Strength and Weakness analysis (Shimla Dairy): Strengths: * High quality product/s * High sales improvement * High growth in sales (15- 20%) * Wide variety of products * Huge emphasis given on the quality of the product Weaknesses: Limited processing capacity when compared to competitors. Location of the processing plant at a very high altitude makes transportation costlier. * Direct sales only to few supermarkets and bakeries * Distributors had the exclusive rights for those particular city sales. * Heavy reliance on banks for working capital * Zero percent revenue was used for marketing purpose. * Too many varieties , considering the plant capacity * Product recall due to defect in storage conditions or problem in transit, which added an additional cost to the company. External Environment Analysis: Cheese Industry in INDIA Until recently cheese market in India was in infancy but was now poised into a growth stage. A decade ago cheese was a fairly new product to Indian market. But with about 1. 2 billion young, growing population and the growing desire for western style foods and increasing penetration into the Indian market, Cheese has grown rapidly in India. The branded cheese market was estimated to be 9000 tonnes per annum valued at 1. 8 billion. In addition, Indian dairy sector is expected to triple its production in the next 10 years. The increase is expected to reflect in the cheese industry too. Also, India is the lowest cost producer of milk in the world. The market scene in India proves it to be favorable for foreign investment in the sector. Cheese industry in India is not highly regulated. However Government was expected to bring about a policy that non certified cheese shall not be sold. Cheese was mainly consumed in urban areas. Competition : The competition in cheese industry, especially the low end cheese is fierce. Many international brands entered the market. In addition there are many new entrants into the market like Amul, Britannia, Vadilal, Verka, Nandini, Dynamix etc. The entry of the new players and increased marketing activity was expected to expand the market. In anticipation of growth, most of the major players were in the process of expanding their production capabilities. These firms posed tuff competition to Shimla Dairy. To understand the market condition better, following is the opportunities and threat analysis. Opportunity and Threat analysis: Opportunity: * Focus on South Indian restaurant segment as consumption is higher compared to North. * Can explore the pizza chains segment Increase the processing capacity, hence attracting more large scale customers * Milk, which is the major raw material, is available at lowest price. Increasing awareness of cheese and its varieties * Increasing willingness of people to explore new western-style taste * More and more varieties of cheese being introduced. Threats: * The milk yield per cow is on the decreasing side * Fierce competition, thereby limiting the profit margins * No regulation by the government thereby spawning new entrants in low end cheese area. * Lack of sources for funds to increase the production capacity.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Hookah Smoking in Saudi Arabia Essay

Hookah Smoking in Saudi Arabia Essay Hookah Smoking in Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay Example Hookah Smoking in Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay Example The issue of hookah smoking is a topical and strongly controversial in the current course of time. To be more precise, the dilemma involves the definition of the hookah that varies between a casual habit and health threatening dependency. The problem that was explored and analyzed deals with the dramatically increasing rate of hookah use in Saudi Arabia. The topicality of the study relies on the fact that Saudi Arabia has a high rate of the health and social risks associated with smoking hookah. Hookah Smoking: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Saudi Arabia The purpose of the given study was to conduct a survey devoted to the attitudes, way of thinking and behavior involving hookah smoking in Saudi Arabia, and to provide credible and consistent data regarding the scope of concern. The course of investigation was conducted by means of employing a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative research design evaluating the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral patterns of the respondents. The participants of the study were Saudi Arabian youths who used social media. The age group of the respondents varied between 18-27 years and included both male and female participants. The survey was offered to 120 individuals, when only 30 of them (25%) responded. The findings revealed that regarding hookah as a social event and as an image-making tool was one of the main reasons to try it. Moreover, the participants revealed comparatively low level of awareness about the risks and threats of hookah smoking, but knew about the harm of passive smoking. I t was recommended to conduct more in-depth research regarding the motivation to smoke and to broaden the scope of information on a topic. The given study is aimed at conducting an online survey among the young citizens of Saudi Arabia within the age group starting from 18 years in order to identify the attitude, comprehension, and behavioral patterns involving hookah smoking, and to result in credible and consistent data in the scope of concern. The responses to the questions of the given survey were provided on the voluntary basis. The survey was forwarded via WhatsApp application to the individual users and 163 of them responded. The given chapter analyzes the acquired outcomes from the survey constructively, and presents the justified and perspective conclusions. To be more precise, the attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral patterns of Saudi Arabian youth about hookah smoking will be discussed. As a matter of fact, both active and passive types of smoking are investigated. The final results are evaluated and summarized so that to demonstrate the actual contribution to the field of research and outline the perspective for further investigation. The majority of the respondents were in the age group starting from 28 years and older, namely, 31.9 %. The respondents in the age group of 27 counted for 11.66%, 26-years old participants were 12.27% of the whole group, and 25-years olds individuals constituted approximately 6,13%. Moreover, the participants in the age of 24 were 6.75%, 23-years old respondents counted for 5.52%, the age groups of 22 and 21 covered 6.75% and 8.59% respectively, whereas 20-years old presented 6.13% of the whole group. The age groups that were most weakly represented in the given survey were people of 19 and 18 years – 2.45% and 1.84% correspondently. The given survey involved the participants of both sexes in order to provide objective outcomes for the consequent analysis. As a matter of fact, there were no limitations, obligatory requirements or restrictions in terms of sex factor. The respondents indicated such aspect in their answers, and the statistics is as follows: the number of male participants constitutes for 52.44%, whereas the female part is 47.56%. Hence, both sexes represented their stance according to the issue in question on equal terms. One of the most important and predetermining questions of the currently discussed survey was as follows: â€Å"Have you ever smoke hookah, even one or two times?† The question is crucial as far as it outlines the preliminary scope of research and intensity of the tendency that is explored. The prevailing majority of the answers were positive, namely, 56.17% confirmed that they tried hookah smoking at least once. Moreover, it is crucial to highlight that two people refused to answer the aforementioned question. Hence, the statistics was based only on the responses of 162 participants. The fourth question was developed in the following way: â€Å"Do you know about the health risks and hazards of hookah smoking?† It is a generalized, but essential question that clarifies whether the young generation in Saudi Arabia is aware of the potential threat of the hookah, or ignorant about it. The answers to the given question globalize the problem and put the responsibility on the authorities of the country and medical system. As a matter of fact, 90.26% of the respondents confirmed their knowledge about the risks the hookah smoking could provoke. Two respondents skipped this question. The next question addresses other habits that may be considered less harmful than smoking hookah. The habit of chewing tobacco gum is considered less threatening for the young generation of Saudi Arabia by 9.88% respondents, whereas electronic cigarettes were confirmed by 29.01% as more healthy habit. Smoking cigars was regarded as less harmful by only 7.41% of the participants, and 19.14% stated that smoking tobacco was less harmful than hookah. Furthermore, 28.40% of the individuals involved in the given survey activity stated that they did not know the difference between the levels of harm caused by the products represented in the list of unhealthy smoking habits. Additionally, 27.78% chose the option â€Å"I do not think any of the above is less harmful than smoking a hookah.† The number of the individuals who responded to this question was also 162. The next important data that was acquired in the course of survey involved the revelation of the major reasons that motivated the youth of Saudi Arabia to start smoking hookah. It should be mentioned that five respondents skipped the aforementioned questions, and the amount of the actual respondents was 159. As a matter of fact, 51.57% of the participants stated that they did not smoke hookah. It means that they had only one time experience with the currently discussed activity. 3.77% of the respondents explained the reason of hookah smoking experience by the image they received due to it. To be more precise, hookah smoking made them popular and trendy, or, in other words, contributed to their reputation among the peers. The significant amount of the survey participants (27.67%) confessed that they wanted merely to experiment on the initial stage of smoking activity. 25.79% stated that hookah made them feel good, and it became a reason to start smoking on a regular basis. The rest pa rt of the whole group of respondents, 1.26%, emphasized that hookah smoking was a socializing factor and contributed to their new friendship. The seventh question was aimed at revealing the attitudes and opinions to passive smoking. Four respondents ignored the question. Five participants out of 160 (3.13%) considered breathing the hookah smoke safe, whereas the majority of the individuals who were surveyed, namely, 99 people (61.88%) stated that passive smoking provoked much harm. The respondents who chose other options of attitude were differentiated in the following way: little harm of passive hookah smoking was supported by 11.25% (18 individuals) and some harm was selected by 23.75% (38 respondents). In order to narrow the scope of research and acquire more specific outcomes, the next question addresses the following aspect: â€Å"During the last 30 days, how many days did you smoke a hookah?† The amount of actual responses was 160, out of which the majority, namely, 65.63% (105 individuals) confirmed that they did not smoke hookah during the last 30 days. Nonetheless, the rest of the participants apparently adhered to such activity occasionally. To be more precise, the one-time or two-time practice of hookah smoking was chosen by 20 participants (12.50%), whereas the frequency between 3-6 times per month was revealed by 2.50% (4 individuals). Ten people (6.25%) smoked hookah starting from seven to 14 times during the last 30 days, and only three of the whole group did it 14-22 times per month (1.88%). Additionally, 9 respondents (5.63%) smoked hookah from 22 to 29 times per last month, and the same quantity of people stated that they smoked hookah every day during the las t month. Hence, the practice of every day hookah smoking is evidently an ordinary issue for the substantial quantity of the surveyed individuals. The ninth question features the starting point in terms of hookah smoking, namely, the age at which the respondents started smoking. Five individuals skipped the given question. Therefore, the statistics was calculated on the basis of the answers provided by 159 people. The prevailing majority of the participants of the given survey, 74 people (46.54%), highlighted that they had never been hookah smokers. Moreover, the age group from 8 to 11 was not checked as a starting point of hookah smoking. As a matter of fact, the youngest smoker was one individual (0.63%) who tried smoking hookah in the age of twelve. Furthermore, there was another single respondent who tried smoking hookah when he or she was 14 (0.63%). Nonetheless, the age groups starting from 15 years reveal gradual decrease in the quantity of hookah smokers. To be more precise, four persons (2.52%) started smoking in the age of 15, the same number tried it in 16, and twelve respondents chose the age of 17 as the time of starting hookah smoking. Eight participants (5.03%) chose the option of 18 years, and eleven respondents (6.92%) stated that they start ed smoking hookah a year later, in 19. The age of 20 was the beginning of hookah experience for eleven people (6.92%), and 21 for seven other participants (4.40%). Eight respondents (5.03%) started smoking in 22, and only 3 people (1.89%) in 23. Furthermore, 24 was the age when 7 people (4.40%) started hookah smoking, and only eight respondents out of 159 participants (5.03%) began their hookah experience in the age of 25 years or older. Finally, the tenth question of the currently discussed survey was as follows: â€Å"Have you ever thought about quitting hookah smoking?† The question is a perspective final element of the given research. Only four respondents skipped it, and the results are based on the responses of 160 people. 101 participants chose a box stating â€Å"I do not smoke a hookah.† Hence, 63.13% of the participants considered themselves automatically to be non-smokers on the regular basis. In addition, 5% of the whole survey group (eight people) stated it was their aim to quit hookah smoking during the next month, whereas 6 participants (3.75%) considered it to be their target for the next six months. The other four respondents were determined to quit smoking within a year. 29 respondents (18.13%) revealed their will to quit the given habit, but highlighted that they did not make a precise decision concerning the time, and twelve participants of the survey (7.50%) stated that they were no t intended to quit hookah smoking. Furthermore, it is appropriate to discuss the limitations, assumptions, and their actual violation. It was assumed that every case of participation in the given survey was voluntary and presupposed honest responses. Nonetheless, every question featured particular inquiry that provoked several participants to skip the actual response. As a result, it may be interpreted as a violation of the initial assumption, since the individuals were willing to partake in the surveying activity. In any case, it should be noted that there was no voluntary readiness to provide honest and precise data about their opinions, experience, and attitudes within the scope of concern. Moreover, the assumption that none of the participants lied during the entire study period did not become questionable as far as those who did not want to be honest in terms of responding the given questions skipped them. At the same time, the rest of the answers were provided on the sincere and clear terms. Furthermore, the ass umption that the methods of computation of the collected data were accurate was also proved in the course of the given study. The issue of limitations of the present investigation was connected with the demographic, age, and geographic factors. It is caused by the fact that the given survey study was specifically developed to evaluate the actual awareness of the young generation in Saudi Arabian world, their attitudes, and behavioral patterns related to hookah smoking. Nevertheless, it was done in such way in order to narrow the scope of research and provide credible and detailed outcomes. Evaluation of Findings The findings of the survey that was conducted online and included ten significantly guiding questions reveal peculiar tendencies and attitudes toward the practice of hookah smoking among the youth in Saudi Arabia. First, it is important to highlight that although the majority of the respondents confirmed that they tried hookah smoking, it was not prevailing, while 43.83% of the respondents never tried it at all. Nonetheless, the overall tendency is disturbing as far as substantial quantity of young people in Saudi Arabia smoke hookah regularly. Moreover, the fact that the prevailing majority of them is aware of potential risks and threats that are imposed by hookah smoking, they are not intended to refuse the habit. It reveals comparatively low level of informative provision, since 9.26% of the respondents are ignorant about the threat of hookah. It leads to the assumption that they regard hookah smoking as one of diverse types of traditions connected with the social context. The preliminary research in the given field featured the hookah smoking practice as a unique social event. Moreover, Sharma, Beck Clark (2013) highlight that the issue of concern provokes great risks connected with health condition. Hence, the findings of the given study align with data acquired in the course of preliminary research. Consequently, the depth and appropriateness of the risks comprehension imposed by hookah smoking demonstrated by the participants of the survey should be considered questionable. It is caused by the fact that the outcomes of the fifth question revealed that the smokers are usually unaware of alternatives that are really less harmful for their health. Hence, if they are ignorant about major issues connected with the impact of hookah on health condition, they are most certainly unaware about the diversity of diseases hookah may provoke as the study of previous research indicates. The discussion of the reasons of hookah smoking illustrated that the majority of actual smokers or those who at least tried it initiated smoking experience in order to align with the experience of others. To be more precise, even the answer â€Å"to experiment† that acquired the majority of the voices among the respondents who were actual smokers should be related to the socially relevant roles and stereotypes. It means that the experiments are usually conducted in cases when it is a popular, challenging or obligatory activity within a particular community. Moreover, the answer â€Å"It just makes me feel good† should also be regarded as the one that relies on socially predetermined experience, considering the fact that the person is expected to know that is good from the close surrounding in order to try it. Hence, the aforementioned evaluation aligns with the stance featured by Abdalla, Al-Kaabba, et al. (2006), who state that â€Å"Arab adolescents could believe smoking to help increase the masculine image and perception of maturity among peers.† (p. 1106). Furthermore, the outcomes of questions concerning passive and active smoking are essential in the given c ontext. The responses reveal proper and sufficient understanding of the harm that is provoked by inhaling the hookah when other people smoke. Such aspect of the currently discussed dilemma is crucial as far as it concerns health, environmental, and social issues. Nevertheless, the fact that substantial number of people did not try hookah smoking at all should be regarded as a step toward the enhancement of the given problem. Consequently, the stance presented by Fida and Abdelmoneim (2013) correlated with the acquired results. Finally, it is crucial to highlight that there is a perspective that the majority of current hookah smokers will eventually quit their habit. In any case, most of them have not decided it precisely yet. Hence, the preliminary decision is made, but the terms are not set. It means that diverse policies and supporting programs should be introduced in Saudi Arabia in order to help such individuals make a proper and rightful decision. The evaluation of the survey findings resulted in proper alignment between preliminary study of the scope of concern and primary data. The tendency to smoke hookah is interpreted as a social event and is regarded as a strong threat to the health condition of the youth of Saudi Arabia. Thus, the conducted survey revealed that the tendency to smoke hookah is strong and widely spread. The reasons of smoking were primarily related to considering hookah a social event and an image-making instrument. Moreover, the individuals revealed comparatively low level of awareness about the risks and threats of hookah smoking. Nonetheless, they were informed about the harm of passive smoking. Therefore, it is evident that more thorough and constructive informative support is necessary in order to contribute to elimination of hookah use among the youth in Saudi Arabia. Consequently, implementation of different programs, strategies, and policies at state level will be appropriate. Furthermore, it is recommended to conduct more in-depth research regarding the motivation to smoke to broaden the scope of research.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Biography of Fred Hampton, Black Panther Party Leader

Biography of Fred Hampton, Black Panther Party Leader Fred Hampton (August 30, 1948–December 4, 1969) was an activist for the NAACP and the Black Panther Party. At age 21, Hampton was fatally shot alongside a fellow activist during a law enforcement raid. Activists and the broader black community considered the deaths of these men unjust, and their families ultimately received a settlement stemming from a civil lawsuit. Today, Hampton is widely remembered as a martyr for the cause of black liberation. Fast Facts: Fred Hampton Known For: Black Panther Party activist who was in a law enforcement raidBorn: August 30, 1948 in Summit, Illinois.Parents: Francis Allen Hampton and Iberia HamptonDied: December 4, 1969 in Chicago, IllinoisEducation: YMCA Community College, Triton CollegeChildren: Fred Hampton Jr.Notable Quote: â€Å"We always say in the Black Panther Party they can do anything they want to to us. We might not be back. I might be in jail. I might be anywhere.  But when I leave, you’ll remember I said, with the last words on my lips, that I am a revolutionary. Early Years Fred Hampton was born on August 30, 1948 in Summit, Illinois. His parents, Francis Allen Hampton and Iberia Hampton, were Louisiana natives who relocated to Chicago. As a youth, Fred excelled in sports and dreamed of playing baseball for the New York Yankees. However, he also excelled in the classroom. Hampton ultimately attended Triton College, where he studied pre-law in hopes of helping people of color fight back against police brutality. As a teen, Hampton became involved in civil rights by leading a local NAACP youth council. He helped to grow the councils membership to more than 500 members. Activism in the Black Panther Party Hampton had success with the NAACP, but the radicalism of the Black Panther Party resonated with him even more. The BPP had successfully launched a free breakfast program to feed children in a number of cities. The group also advocated for self-defense rather than nonviolence and took a global perspective on the black freedom struggle, finding inspiration in Maoism. A skilled speaker and organizer, Hampton quickly moved through the ranks of the BPP. He became the leader of Chicago’s BPP branch, then the chairmain of the Illinois BPP, and finally the deputy chair of the national BPP. He engaged in grassroots activism, working as an organizer, a peacemaker, and taking part in the BPP’s free breakfast program and people’s medical clinic. A COINTELPRO Target From the 1950s until the 1970s, the FBI’s Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) targeted leaders of activist organizations like Fred Hampton. The program served to undermine, infiltrate, and spread misinformation (often through extrajudicial means) about political groups and the activists who belonged to them. COINTELPRO targeted civil rights leaders such as the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. as well as radical groups like the Black Panther Party, the American Indian Movement, and the Young Lords. As Hampton’s influence in the Black Panthers grew, the FBI began to focus on his activities, opening a file on him in 1967. The FBI enlisted a man named William ONeal to infiltrate and sabotage the Black Panthers Party. ONeal, who had been previously arrested for car theft and impersonating a federal officer, agreed to the task because the federal agency promised to drop the felony charges against him. O’Neal quickly gained access to Hampton by becoming both his bodyguard and a security director in Hampton’s Black Panther Party chapter. As a Black Panther Party leader, Hampton persuaded Chicago’s black and Puerto Rican street gangs to call a truce. He also worked with white-dominated groups like Students for a Democratic Society and the Weather Underground. He called the multiracial groups he collaborated with his Rainbow Coalition. Following FBI director J. Edgar Hoover’s orders, O’Neal undid much of Hampton’s work to foster peace in the community, leading community members to lose confidence in the BPP. Fred Hampton's Killing Sowing discord in the community wasn’t the only way O’Neal attempt to undermine Hampton. He also played a direct role in his killing. On December 3, 1969, O’Neal secretly drugged Hampton by putting a sleeping pill into his drink. Shortly afterward, law enforcement agents initiated an early morning raid on Hampton’s apartment. Despite not having a warrant for weapons charges, they entered the apartment with guns firing. They mortally wounded Mark Clark, who was guarding Hampton. Hampton and his fiancee, Deborah Johnson (also called Akua Njeri), were asleep in their bedroom. They had been wounded but survived the gunfire. When an officer realized that Hampton hadn’t been killed, he proceeded to shoot the activist twice in the head. Johnson, who was expecting a child with Hampton, was not killed. The other seven Black Panthers present in the apartment were charged with several serious crimes, including attempted murder, armed violence, and multiple weapons charges. However, when a Department of Justice investigation revealed that Chicago Police had fired up to 99 shots, and the Panthers had only fired once, the charges were dropped. Activists considered the killing of Hampton to be an assassination. When the FBI’s Pennsylvania field office was broken into not long after, the COINTELPRO files found included a floor plan of Hampton’s apartment and documents that mentioned covering up the FBI’s part in Hampton’s killing. Lawsuit and Settlement The family members of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark sued the Chicago Police, Cook County, and the FBI for $47.7 million in 1970 for wrongfully killing the men. That case was thrown out, but a new case took place in 1979 after officials concluded that the law enforcement agencies involved had obstructed justice and refused to hand over relevant paperwork related to the killings. Three years later, the families of Hampton and Clark learned that they would receive a $1.85 million settlement from the local and federal agencies responsible for the men’s deaths. Although that sum was far less than what they’d sought, the settlement was an acknowledgement, to a degree, of wrongdoing. Had the Chicago Police not killed Fred Hampton, he would have been named chief of staff of the Black Panther Partys central committee, making him a key spokesman for the group. Hampton never got that opportunity, but he has not been forgotten. Soon after his death, the BPP filmed an investigation of his apartment, which police did not close off. The footage captured is seen in the 1971 documentary â€Å"The Murder of Fred Hampton.† An estimated 5,000 mourners turned up to Hampton’s funeral, during which the activist was remembered by civil rights leaders such the Rev. Jesse Jackson and Ralph Abernathy.  Although activists Roy Wilkins and Ramsey Clark characterized Hampton’s killing as unjustified, none of the officers or officials involved in the raid were convicted of wrongdoing. Legacy A number of writers, rappers, and musicians have referred to Fred Hampton in their writings or lyrics. The group Rage Against the Machine famously mentions the activist in its 1996 hit â€Å"Down Rodeo,† in which frontman Zack de la Rocha declares, â€Å"They ain’t gonna send us campin’ like they did my man Fred Hampton.† In the city of Chicago, December 4 is â€Å"Fred Hampton Day.† A public pool in Maywood, Illinois, where Hampton grew up, bears his name. A bust of Hampton sits outside the Fred Hampton Family Aquatic Center. Hampton, like other political activists, seemed keenly aware that his work would put his life in jeopardy. However, while he was alive, he expressed confidence in his own legacy: â€Å"We always say in the Black Panther Party that they can do anything they want to us. We might not be back. I might be in jail. I might be anywhere. But when I leave, you’ll remember I said, with the last words on my lips, that I am a revolutionary. And you’re going to have to keep on saying that. You’re going to have to say that I am a proletariat, I am the people.† Sources Ballesteros, Carlos. â€Å"Black Panther icon Fred Hampton’s boyhood home facing foreclosure.† Chicago Sun-Times, 16 October, 2018.â€Å"Fred Hampton.† National Archives, 15 December, 2016. Silva, Christianna. â€Å"Who Was Fred Hampton, the Black Panther Shot and Killed by Chicago Police 48 Years Ago?† Newsweek, 4 December, 2017.â€Å"Watch: The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther.† Democracy Now! 4 December, 2014.